Sunday, September 25, 2011

More on Drilling Jack-up and some installations on board

The first step in the jack-up rig design is the definition of its configuration. This is based on operational and economic requirements and past design experience. Decisions made at this stage have a significant impact on the behaviour of the structure. The geometry of the configuration developed should have the necessary capacity to accommodate needed equipment, preload tanks and quarters. Preliminary estimates of weights should be made and a naval architect should assess the configuration for the “afloat” mode of the jack-up rig. A configuration for the legs should be developed. The system for connecting the legs to the hull so as to achieve efficient moment transfer should be chosen. A classification society should also be chosen [American Bureau of Shipping, 2001; Det Norske Veritas-Rules for Classification of Mobile Offshore Units]. A preliminary assessment should then be made to ensure that the chosen configuration complies with the requirements of the chosen classification society. After this, the basic design can be developed. The efforts of the structural engineer are important from this stage on. Hull scantlings are the individual elements that makeup the structure.

Due to the numerous complexities associated with jack-ups, it should be remembered that a structural analysis would be based on a number of simplifying assumptions and approximations. Though software is available to execute a non-linear dynamic analysis, the designer may opt for a simple static analysis using wave forces generated from a hydrodynamic analysis applying a linear wave theory (Such as the Stoke’s Fifth Order Potential Wave Theory) to a hydrodynamic model generated for this purpose.

The following steps should serve as a general guideline for the analysis of a jack-up platform:-

Define the environment including water depth, wind speed, wave (type, height, period) and current velocity and its variation with depth. This can be a location specific environment (North Sea, Persian Gulf) or a world wide criteria. The worldwide criterion is a reference benchmark that does not necessarily reflect any particular location. Some of the storm parameters (100 knot wind) are defined per code or classification authority or refer to API.

The results of these environments are then used as reference for the actual unit location. With the exception of very heavy loads (such as cantilever, transom and hold-down reactions, heliport support members, etc.), this may be accomplished by summing all the equipment weight on a deck, a proportion of the variable load on that deck and dead load and distributing this load uniformly over the entire deck. This may be done for all decks. Loads from the drill floor may be applied as concentrated forces at appropriate locations. Usually, the weight is assumed to be balanced equally among the three legs. This is normally achieved by moving the liquids among the various tanks to reach a balanced condition.

Generate a hydrodynamic model of the jack-up platform. This may be a simple model consisting of three “stick” elements that have the same hydrodynamic properties as the trussed leg. The ideal source of the drag values of the unit would generally be determined via wind tunnel models. This takes into account the actual geometry of the unit and the effects of shielding. Usually the product of these studies is a single drag value for the legs and hull. The main problem with this source of parameters is cost and time.

Generate a Global Structural Model: a typical finite element analysis model of a jack-up platform structure and usually the length of leg that should be used in the modelling for a given water depth. For a jack-up platform whose legs have independent spud can foundations, the legs are usually assumed to be pinned at a depth of about 10 ft below the mudline. For a mat supported jack-up, the structure of the mat may be modelled using plate elements and the legs could be fixed to this structure. Per the ABS Rules [American Bureau of Shipping, 20011, the minimum crest clearance to be provided is 4 ft (1.2 m) above the crest of maximum wave or 10% of the combined height of the storm tide plus the astronomical tide and height of the maximum wave crest above the mean low water level, whichever is less between the underside of the unit in the elevated position and the crest of the design wave.

Spud Cans

This is the most common type of jack-up platform foundation in use. Spud cans typically consist of a conically shaped bottom face. The purpose of a spud can is to transfer the jack-up leg loads into the seabed below. The structure of the spud-can should thus have the capacity to resist the resulting shear and bending stresses exerted on it by the leg and the foundation soils. To determine the maximum force on a spud can during the design phase, the total weight of the upper hull during the worst design storm condition and its center of gravity is first established. This weight is then distributed over all the legs of the jack-up platform. From the applied environmental forces, the overturning moment is determined next. The direction of this overturning moment should be so as to cause the maximum compressive force on one leg. An appropriate load factor should then be applied to this force. The area of contact between the spud can and the soil should be sufficient for the weakest chosen soil condition to support this force.

Other criteria that are applied to design the structural strength of the spud can are:

Assume that the entire reaction acts as a concentrated load on the tip of the spud can.
Assume that the entire reaction acts on a circle centred on the tip of the spud can, whose radius is (i) %, (ii) %, (iii) 3/4 and (iv) 1 times the equivalent radius of the can.

The lower plating should be designed for the resulting distributed loads. Spud cans are usually designed to be flooded during operation. To facilitate access to the inside of the can, during the floating condition of the jack-up platform, vents may be provided to a certain height above the top of the can. The upper plating should be designed for a hydrostatic head corresponding to the height of this vent in case the can is not flooded.


Trussed legs are the most common type on modern jack-up rigs, the other type being cylindrical legs. Legs are subjected to the following forces:

(1) Elevated condition:
(a) Compression forces due to gravity loads on the hull.
(b) Compression forces due to the reactive couple caused by overturning moments on the jack-up.
(c) Bending moments at the hull due to the horizontal displacement of the hull and the moment connection between the leg and the hull.
(d) Horizontal forces on the leg due to wave, current and wind action.

(e) Bending moments due to P-A effect on the leg.
(f) High local stresses due to force transfer and from the pinions. “rack chocks, hull upper and lower guides”.
(2) Afloat condition:(a) Gravity loads on the leg.
(b) Wind force.
(c) Inertia forces due to vessel motions.
(d) Restraining reactions from guide units or other locking devices in the hull that create high moments in the leg.
(e) Fatigue causing cyclic stresses in the lower bays of the legs due to the constant pitch and roll motions of the floating vessel.

Jack Up

Diverter Systems

Conductor Tension Ing Unit CTU

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